Coral Rock Cod – Facts and Photographs

A coral rock cod, Cephalopholis miniata peers out of its hole

The coral rock cod, Cephalopholis miniata, is also known as the coral hind, miniatus grouper, miniata grouper, vermilion seabass, and coral grouper.


The coral rock cod has a typical grouper shape and like many other groupers can lighten or darken its coloration depending on its mood. It’s typical coloration is a red orange with bright blue spots on it but it can change its colors dependent on mood. When stressed it darkens its color to a bright red and to see one of these fish being hauled out the sea by a fisherman is quite a sight as they go a very bright red.Their maximum size is between 45 to 50 cm in length although 35 to 40 cm is more common.

Coral rock cod Cephalopholis miniata in Mafia island Marine park


Coral rock cod are fairly shy fish when it comes to divers and will quickly either swim away from a diver and hide or they will peer out at a diver while hovering close to a hole that it can dart into.


Coral rock cod are found on the East coast of Africa from Durban in the south to the red sea, eastwards to the mid pacific including most islands but are absent from the Persian and Omani gulfs. They are typically found on exposed reefs rather than in protected areas or estuaries and we have never seen one in less than 18 meters but reportedly they are found in shallower waters from 2 to 150 meters.

Coral Rock cod Cephalopholis miniata Mafia island scuba diving Tanzania Mikindini reef inner


Their main diet is small fishes and crustaceans, however given they are regularly caught by fishermen on the hook this indicates that they will scavenge as well. Their main prey is the sea goldy Pseudanthias squamipinnis which is in abundance on most reefs. They are ambush predators and feed in the early morning and late afternoon when their coloration gives them more camouflage.

Coral rock cod Cephalopholis miniata in Mafia island Marine park


The coral rock cods form haremic groups with upt to twelve females in a group, each female having a territory which falls in the territory of the male.


Because of their bright coloration these fish are kept in large aquariums by some collectors but because of their propensity to eat smaller fish great care has to be taken with their tank mates.


The coral rock cod is fished commercially and in most areas of the Tanzanian coast is heavily over fished.


Kingdom:        Animalia
Phylum:           Chordata
Class:               Actinopterygii
Order:              Perciformes
Family:            Serranidae
Genus:             Cephalopholis
Species:           C. miniata



Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)


Canon 7D

Ikelite 7D Housing

Twin Ikelite DS 161 Strobes

Flat Ikelite Lens Port

Ikelite Dual Synch Cord 

Ikelite 5.1 inch Port body




Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.