An Octopus vulgaris with it’s primary defense to hide, either not to be seen at all, or by using camouflage so as not to be detected. The octopus’s camouflage is aided by specialized skin cells that can change color, opacity and reflectivity. This color-changing ability can also be used to communicate with or warn other octopuses. They can also use muscles in their skin to change the texture of their mantle for an even better camouflage. The mantle can take on the spiked appearance of seaweed, or the bumpy texture of a rock, among other disguises.